Specialties of doctors

Ultrasound doctor

An ultrasound doctor is a specialist who diagnoses diseases and various conditions of the human body using ultrasound diagnosis or sonography.

Sonography is often called ultrasound imaging; an ultrasound doctor uses a device known as a sensor that travels across the skin’s surface to capture images of the underlying structures of the body.

It emits high-frequency noise that is not perceived by human ears, and the information obtained provides detailed images that are accurate regarding the consistency, shape and structure of the organs of the body and soft tissues. An ultrasound doctor evaluates the results of an ultrasound examination to diagnose any health problems for the patient.

The scope of diagnosis of an ultrasound doctor

An ultrasound doctor diagnoses mainly soft tissues, but can be used to visualize almost all body tissues and organs.

An ultrasound doctor diagnoses diseases of the muscles, ligaments, tendons and joints, brain and spinal cord, abdominal organs, kidneys, liver and pancreas, breast, heart, blood vessels.

Diseases diagnosed by an ultrasound doctor

Abdominal diseases

An ultrasound examiner diagnoses a patient's abdominal disease to assess the soft tissues, organs, and blood vessels of this area of ​​the body. An abdominal ultrasound helps in the diagnosis and treatment of medical problems associated with the urinary tract, kidneys and male reproductive organs.

In addition to these, it is used to evaluate the pancreas and gallbladder, as well as the liver, spleen, and other abdominal components. It is a safe and non-invasive method for examining abdominal pain and edema, monitoring conditions such as cysts, benign tumors, gallstones and cirrhosis of the liver.

An abdominal ultrasound is also performed to identify obstructions, plaques and blood clots in the abdominal arteries and veins of patients. In addition to diagnostic work, they can provide visual ultrasound guidance during biopsy and other invasive procedures.

It also produces real-time blood flow visualization, bowel movement and movement of internal organs caused by breathing.

Breast Diseases

Breast ultrasound is a frequent addition to cancer screening because it provides good images of all areas of the mammary glands, including those that are difficult to see on a mammogram.

Ultrasound diagnostics specialists who specialize in this area perform additional imaging for women with a dense chest, in which cancer may be more difficult to detect using mammography. Their images often help differentiate cysts filled with fluid from solid masses.

Breast sonography reduces the need for biopsy and provides real-time visual guidance during those biopsies that are identified as necessary.

Diseases of the nervous system

Neurosonographs provide important data to help assess problems affecting the brain, spinal cord, and adjacent areas. Neurosonography is often used to study blood flow through the vessels in the nervous system and to identify and understand disorders such as stroke, brain injury, brain tumors, and aneurysm. Neurosonographs can assist in the study of patients with disorders of the spine and central nervous system, including paralysis, multiple sclerosis, herniation of the intervertebral disk, compressed vertebrae and myelitis. They often scan patients with pain and limited mobility and can provide early detection of an aneurysm or stroke.

Diseases of the female reproductive system

Gynecological ultrasound provides images of the pelvic organs, while in pregnant women obstetric ultrasound is used to monitor the health of the developing fetus.

These techniques provide confirmation of pregnancy, control the growth and development of the fetus, carry out measurements to determine gestational age, determine the position of the fetus, assess the placenta and search for any abnormalities.

An ultrasound doctor also identifies cases of multiple pregnancies and gives parents first visual contact with their unborn child. In non-pregnant women, imaging is used to assess problems such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, and cancer.

Diseases of the cardiovascular system

Echocardiography uses ultrasound technology to evaluate the structure and dynamic functioning of blood flow to and from the heart, as well as heart valves and other components of the cardiovascular system. This type of ultrasound is called an echocardiogram or simply echocardiography.

Eye diseases

Ophthalmic ultrasound can detect a wide variety of abnormalities and can help optimize the treatment of some of these conditions. It provides an effective method of observation inside the eyes when a cataract or vitreous hemorrhage does not allow to examine the eye.

Ophthalmic sonographs usually scan with patients lying in a dimly lit room, and should exercise caution when the eye is damaged. An ultrasound doctor can choose from five different ultrasound scans depending on which abnormalities or which procedure is performed. For example, scanning may include measuring the size, thickness, or curvature of eye components. The study can also provide a complete overview throughout the eyeball and can instead evaluate blood flow and blood circulation among other parameters.

Vascular diseases

Vascular sonography uses ultrasound imaging to evaluate the body's circulatory system. The Vascular Ultrasound Specialist uses various ultrasound procedures and clinical examination techniques to evaluate the pulse and blood flow in tissues and organs, including the brain, abdomen and limbs. Real-time images of vascular sonographs are vital for understanding many disorders and provide a safe, non-invasive tool to help doctors diagnose problems of the vascular system, excluding the heart. What are the symptoms to consult a doctor ultrasound?

Usually, some other specialist, such as a surgeon, for appendicitis, or a gynecologist, for suspected pregnancy, refer the ultrasound scan to the doctor.

But any person can himself turn to this specialist and get his qualified opinion, and after finding the problem, he can turn to a doctor who specializes in the treatment of this disease. Indications for ultrasound are:

  • delayed menstruation;
  • suspicion of abdominal tumors;
  • feeling of bitterness in the mouth;
  • feeling of full stomach;
  • enlargement of the thyroid gland;
  • inflammation of the prostate;
  • monitoring the effectiveness of treatment;
  • in pregnant and lactating breast exam, etc.

Ultrasound diagnosis methods

With transvaginal ultrasound, a transducer is placed in the female vagina to get the best images of her uterus and ovaries. "Transvaginal" means "through the vagina." This is an internal inspection. Unlike conventional abdominal or pelvic ultrasound, where the ultrasound transducer or transducer is located on the outside of the pelvis, this procedure involves immersing the ultrasound probe 5–7 cm into the vaginal canal.

Transrectal ultrasound is sometimes used to diagnose the condition of the prostate. Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) is a procedure that uses sound waves to create an image of the prostate gland and surrounding tissue. Typically, the procedure requires the introduction of an ultrasound probe into the patient's rectum. Then the probe sends and receives sound waves through the rectal wall into the prostate gland, which is located directly in front of the rectum.

Trans-esophageal echocardiography uses a probe probe in the esophagus, so a sonograph can get clearer images of the heart. In addition, ultrasound technology has been improved for various types of images.

Doppler is a special type of ultrasound that creates images of blood flow through the vessels. This study helps physicians evaluate blood flow through the major arteries and veins of organs, limbs. During pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound can be used to analyze blood flow in an unborn baby to check its health.

Bone sonography helps doctors diagnose osteoporosis. Echocardioscopy is used to view the heart. Ultrasound of the heart provides the doctor with moving images of the heart and makes excellent pictures that will help the doctor evaluate the health of the heart. The most common type of ultrasound of the heart is non-invasive and very light for the patient. A gel is used to slide the sensor over the chest area. This allows the reflected sound waves to provide a vivid image of the heart and valves.

Ultrasound of the heart uses the same technology that allows doctors to see the unborn baby prenatal.

In cardiac ultrasound, there is no radiation, and the technology can be used for people of all ages.

The 3D image adds another dimension to the traditional ultrasound image, and thereby creates three-dimensional interpretations, rather than the usual two-dimensional flat images. 4D ultrasound allows you to show a 3D image in motion.

Using 3D and 4D scanning, you can see the skin, not the inner shell of the child. You can see the shape of the mouth and nose of the unborn child. 3D and 4D scans may, however, provide more information about a known anomaly. Since these scans can display more details from different angles, they can help in the diagnosis of a cleft lip. This can help doctors plan surgery immediately after birth.

The advantages of ultrasound

It is usually painless and does not require needles, injections or incisions. Patients are not exposed to any harmful radiation, including ionizing radiation, and therefore the procedure is safer than diagnostic methods such as X-rays and CT. In fact, there are no known harmful effects when used as directed by this type of medical service.

Ultrasound makes it possible to see soft tissues that do not appear on x-rays. Ultrasounds are widely available and less expensive than other methods. An ultrasound doctor can answer the question: "Is this a boy or a girl?", As well as many other life-changing medical questions, using ultrasound technology.

In addition to examining pregnant women, ultrasound diagnostics are used to diagnose other diseases, creating images of organs and tissues of the body. Skilled ultrasound doctors play a vital role in ensuring a proper diagnosis.

This is a job with both social and technical elements, since the doctor must position the patient correctly so that the calibrated machine can create the best image.

This job also requires social skills, since often the ultrasound doctor is the first person to whom nervous patients seek information about their condition.

Article author:
Furmanova Elena Alexandrovna

Specialty: pediatrician, infectious diseases specialist, allergist-immunologist.

Total experience: 7 years.

Education: 2010, SSMU, pediatric, pediatrics.

Experience infectious diseases more than 3 years.

He has a patent on the topic “A method for predicting a high risk of the formation of a chronic pathology of the adeno-tonsillar system in frequently ill children”. As well as the author of publications in the journals of the Higher Attestation Commission.

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