Psychiatry specializes in the study of the origin and occurrence of abnormal processes and phenomena in the human psyche, and the psychiatrist is a doctor who diagnoses, treats and prevents mental health anomalies in patients. In the literal sense of the word "psychiatrist" has the translation "soul healer" that best describes the profession.
The essence of the work of a psychiatrist
The main recognized criterion by which the patient is imputed mental disorder, is the occurrence of pain in the soul, which can be expressed in the thoughts, feelings and will of the person. This is a very fine line, which can sometimes be transgressed by anyone, which is why it is important to understand and feel the need to go to specialists in time.
A psychiatrist must necessarily understand the specifics of psychology and neurology related to psychiatry. At the same time, the neurologist deals with the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system, and the psychologist helps his patients to understand the emerging life troubles without medication.
Psychotherapists in their practice can sometimes use light sedative medications, but they do not include standard therapy with medications.
But the psychiatrist, on the contrary, should be able to apply in his own practice various specialized techniques for the elimination of mental disorders, combining complex treatment with various special medications.
Improving a person's mental health is a very delicate, jewelery job that requires a high level of professional training, human participation and the ability to empathize with one’s own patients.
If you have the slightest suspicion about a change in a stable picture of the psyche, a person urgently needs to consult a psychiatrist, who will help you identify all the existing problems of the person during the preliminary consultation and suggest you undergo additional examinations or tests to clarify the course of the disease.
Reasons to visit a psychiatrist
A psychiatrist can come to a consultation, both sick and healthy people. In each case, the psychiatrist, first of all, assesses the capacity of the human psyche for later life and after that can help him to resolve the issues of concern to the patient. For effective treatment, psychiatrists often involve other doctors, such as general practitioners or nutritionists, for example.
An important social function of psychiatrists is to determine the danger of a person for his own health and life or for the health of other people. If there are signs of danger, the patient must be urgently hospitalized with the aim of isolation from the outside world and establishing observation of his reactions and actions in relation to himself. In the absence of danger from the patient to the outside world, his treatment can be performed on an outpatient basis. Most often, along with therapeutic techniques, psychiatrists use special preparations.
The main reasons for consulting a psychiatrist are:
- mood swings that can be observed in a patient over a long period of time;
- suicidal tendencies — talk, thoughts, or physical attempts to commit suicide;
- emerging bouts of paranoid behavior;
- the occurrence of hallucinations;
- prolonged sleep interruptions - insomnia;
- various anxiety states for no particular reason and other similar symptoms.
The psychiatrist diagnoses mental health abnormalities present in the history, prescribes correct therapy and regularity of follow-up visits. In this case, treatment by psychiatrists is confidential, in which all data obtained from the patient during diagnosis and therapy, psychiatrists guarantee not to disclose.
What diseases does the psychiatrist work with?
The first step on the way to cure soul diseases is the psychiatrist's study of the mechanisms of the occurrence of a deviation in the psyche of a particular person, the diagnosis of the disease and the appointment of appropriate treatment.
Psychiatrists can advise both sick and healthy patients; the process of examining mental health in determining their capacity or level of mental instability is also within their competence.
All psychiatry is divided into several areas, in each of which doctors work, most often dealing with a specific mental specificity of human health: organizational, age-related, forensic psychiatry, narcology, psychopharmacology, social psychiatry.
It is impossible to name all the diseases that a psychiatrist can cure, since their list is very long and it is constantly expanding with emerging new forms of psychiatric abnormalities. In addition to the above reasons for referring to psychiatrists, there are several other classic psychiatric diseases that are within the competence of this medical specialist:
- Alzheimer's disease;
- delirium tremens;
- phobias of various nature, severe depression;
- baseless prolonged psychosis, frequent hysterical seizures, schizophrenic conditions;
- mental disorders arising in post-traumatic syndrome;
- various forms of insurmountable dependencies (alcoholism, for example);
- bulimia and anorexia.
Only a good psychiatrist can put an end to the final diagnosis of people suffering from the aforementioned and many other diseases. All subsequent treatment with medical and therapeutic means must be agreed with him.
Diagnostic Methods and Analyzes
When referring to a psychiatrist, the patient will need to undergo some research so that the specialist can correctly diagnose and prescribe appropriate treatment for the state of health.
The main types of tests for psychiatric treatment experts include:
- analyzes that determine the state of the thyroid gland: the presence of antibodies to peroxidase and thyroglobulin, the level of thyrotropic hormone, thyroxine free, triiodothyronine free, thyroglobulin;
- analysis of the developed formula of pituitary hormones: prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, somatotropin;
- analysis of adrenal hormones: androstenedione, adrenaline, cortisol, aldosterone, norepinephrine, metanephrine.
Often, psychiatrists also use neurophysiological studies, such as encephalography, angiogram of cerebral vessels, magnetic resonance imaging, and others, to clarify the details of the diagnosis. In addition to material changes in brain activity, psychiatrists in their work devote a large role to the mental state of their patients. That is why the clinical diagnosis of psychiatric diseases is the most common and effective method in the work of psychiatrists.
The clinical diagnostic method in psychiatry is to interview the patient and monitor changes in his mental states during this conversation. These changes perfectly characterize the occurrence, course and symptoms of mental illness. In the course of this conversation, the psychiatrist pays attention to the mimic changes of the patient, the intonations with which he says certain things, the person's reaction to an attempt to establish contact with him.
Sometimes a group discussion of the signs of the disease seen by a group of doctors at a consultation is used to diagnose a disease in psychiatry.
The essence of the clinical method for the diagnosis of psychiatric abnormalities is to interview the patient and his family. Each person’s survey is conducted individually to understand how honest each interviewee is and to exclude any influence on what was said during the interview. The first part of the survey contains general introductory questions about age, marital status, and so on. Based on complaints received, the psychiatrist can identify the nascent disease during the interview process. However, he is obliged to very gently manage the established conversation, so as not to cause reticence or hostility of the interlocutor.
When interviewing, the doctor pursues the following goals: he reveals the attitude of the patient himself to his own disease, specifies that, according to the patient, provoked the occurrence of his disease, determines the syndromes and symptoms of mental disorder, recognizes the personality characteristics of the patient, identifies the nature of the disease, its features and attitude patient for the upcoming treatment. When interviewing a patient's relatives, a psychiatrist can clarify for himself their vision of the time of occurrence of the disease, determine what the patient himself can hide from him, what are the true causes of the disease, seen from the side, how close relatives relate to the patient and whether they are determined to help with treatment.
Monitoring the patient. A psychiatrist observes the patient to determine his degree of susceptibility to the proposed disease. At the same time, gestures, facial expressions, actions, intonations, reactions to all sorts of events are important. Also, the doctor easily identifies the differences between how a person presents himself in the description, and how he really is. The purpose of this observation is to identify topics and questions that sharply touch and interest the patient, determine his ability to take care of himself, identify and analyze his daily actions and interaction with society.
It is important to understand that the correctness of diagnosis and, as a result, the effectiveness of psychiatric therapy will largely depend on the method of diagnosis.
To maintain your own mental balance, according to psychiatrists, perhaps, if you observe sleep hygiene. Long-term disorders of sleep and wakefulness regime contribute to the emergence of somatic diseases, including the psychiatric trend. For complete relaxation, prevent overwork and improve the quality of sleep patterns, you must follow simple rules.
Before bedtime you can not watch TV, you must completely eliminate any emotional stress, while the bed is recommended to be used exclusively for sleep and marital duties, and all other things need to be done outside of the bed, otherwise it will no longer be associated with rest and sleep will be confused. There should be no irritants in the bedroom, including bright light or high noise levels. In order not to stimulate the nervous system and prevent insomnia, you should not eat and drink fluids a couple of hours before sleep.
In the daytime you can sleep no more than 25 minutes, and on the eve of sleep you can not smoke, because nicotine is a stimulant of the central nervous system, which leads to confused sleep and insomnia.
Taking drugs and caffeinated beverages is allowed no later than 6 hours before bedtime, as tea, coffee and some medications containing this substance also provoke the central nervous system and interfere with sleep. Alcohol before bedtime is the most common cause of nightmares, intermittent sleep, since the process of disintegration of alcohol and its removal from the body will fall precisely at a time when the body needs to fully relax. According to psychiatrists, it is precisely sound and healthy sleep that can provide a person with complete mental health, stability of the nervous system and protect everyone from nervous overstrain and mental problems.