Doctors specialties


Medicine in our time has become a fairly ramified industry. There are narrow specialties that study mainly these or those organs. But, as before, all sectors are divided into 3 main groups: specialization in the therapeutic, surgical and pediatric areas.

Brief information

A pulmonologist is a representative of a narrow specialization. This is a typical therapist who deals with respiratory ailments. What exactly is he treating? Its scope includes diverse pathologies of the bronchi and lungs.

There is a division into an adult and a children's specialist. But often at the reception in the district, and sometimes in the regional institutions there is only an adult doctor who treats the entire population. This is not entirely true. After all, the work of a children's specialist is very different, has a number of features.

Children's doctor is a specialist exclusively for babies. Here, objectivity in the reception of this category of patients is important. After all, at the consultation, often the kids simply are not able to accurately tell and describe the clinic, signs that worry. Often, they cannot even describe the main complaints. Working with children is different from visiting adults. The doctor needs to know the features of the child's body at different ages, be able to persuade the baby to be examined, listen to the lungs in conditions of extreme behavior of a small patient.

In the world there are a huge number of all kinds of pulmonological departments and whole institutes dealing with the problems of the respiratory apparatus. On the one hand, these are narrow specialists, on the other hand, pulmonologists know the intricacies of a huge range of various pathologies. Indeed, it is precisely the problems of the respiratory tract that are one of the most common today in the human population.

When is a consultation needed?

This doctor deals exclusively with diseases of the broncho-pulmonary system. Therefore, you need to contact a similar doctor if there is a characteristic symptom of a lesion of these structures. The most common and common signs of respiratory tract damage include:

  1. Attacks of a specific cough of a smoker

Such a complaint often takes place in the morning. Only profuse expectoration of sputum facilitates the condition and well-being of patients. The occurrence of viscous sputum greatly complicates coughing. Patients begin to cough for a long time without relief. Such a clinic often indicates the development of a chronic form of bronchitis. Without timely, adequate therapy, emphysema, severe respiratory failure, and COPD often join.

  1. Regular cough

Why does a cough occur? In fact, the brain is responsible for the occurrence of this symptom, namely its cough center. Activation occurs when the irritant is exposed to the respiratory tract. By and large, coughing is a protective mechanism, the effect of which is entirely aimed at eliminating dust, mucus, foreign particles, which for some reason got into the respiratory tract. Ailments accompanied by cough are quite dangerous. Indeed, during an incorrect examination, inadequate therapy, the ailment is often aggravated and progresses. That is, the traditional inflammation of the upper respiratory tract passes to the bronchi and lungs. This complicates the course, complicates the healing, increases the risk of complications. In such cases, the consultation of a pulmonologist is urgent and extremely important. Only with its help it is possible to determine the true cause of the problem and begin the necessary treatment.

  1. Dyspnea

This symptom has several features. It may occur:

  • at rest - often occurs due to problems with the lungs, indicates emphysema - the true cause of a decrease in inhaled oxygen or the presence of extensive pneumonia. The state of severe form of dysfunction of the heart during physical exertion may also be relevant - there is an increase in the number of respiratory movements at the slightest changes in body position: turns in bed, eating, getting up;
  • may be due to difficulty in breathing, which is more common with changes in the bronchopulmonary system, the occurrence of obstruction in the bronchi with inflammation or compression from the outside;
  • due to difficulty exhaling, especially with heart failure;
  • combination with difficulty breathing out is the first symptom of diseases such as obstruction, asthmatic ailments; in case of occurrence, the conclusion of a pulmonologist will be required, an allergist should also be visited; so it will be possible in the early stages to identify a dangerous ailment, and, accordingly, exclude the possibility of exacerbation.
  1. Bronchial asthma

This is a severe chronic disease. Clinically marked attacks of shortness of breath. Patients complain of a feeling of lack of air, dry cough. There is a lack of oxygen, severe compression of the chest, shortness of breath. Inhalations are short and exhalations are slow, wheezing occurs that can be heard from a distance. Pallor, cyanosis is noted, veins on the neck swell. Cough unproductive, does not bring relief. Heart rate and muffled heart sounds are also noted. Possible transition to severe asthmatic status. Bronchial asthma can develop on the background of an allergy, or due to an infectious and inflammatory process.

Diagnostic approaches

Pulmonology is one of those industries in which an objective examination by a doctor is the key to making a diagnosis. The completeness of this procedure depends on qualifications. First of all, a detailed survey of the patient is carried out, complaints are collected and their details are detailed. An objective examination followed by auscultation, percussion and palpation.

Often, to clarify the diagnosis in severe, advanced cases, a number of additional tests are required. There are several main areas:

  • skin test testing;
  • general blood analysis;
  • examination of blood serum for the presence of specific immunoglobulins;
  • conducting provocative tests - applicable in the framework of remission of the disease.

Very often the clinic of the ailment is rather confusing. Therefore, to clarify the diagnosis, an instrumental examination of the patient is required. To do this, it is often used:

  • echocardiography;
  • CT scan;
  • radiography of the OGK;
  • determination of external respiration (spirography);
  • bronchoscopy.

An organism is an integral structure, all its elements are interconnected. Therefore, it is impossible to evaluate each organ structure individually. That is why when examining and making a final diagnosis, consultation of related specialists is often required. We are talking about a cardiologist, oncologist, endocrinologist, neurologist, allergist, infectious disease specialist.

The scope of work of a pulmonologist

Doctors of this specialization are involved in the examination, diagnosis and therapy of ailments of the lower respiratory structures. The allocation of such a narrow specialization occurred historically, in view of the huge number of ailments of these bodies.

There are several groups of ailments according to the genesis of their appearance:

  • infectious - bronchitis, pneumonia;
  • hereditary - cystic fibrosis;
  • allergic - bronchial asthma;
  • professional - asbestosis, anthracosis;
  • traumatic - pneumothorax;
  • ailments of unknown origin - sarcoidosis, fibrosing alveolitis.

The specialist further leads and monitors the dynamics of patients with chronic obstruction, emphysema and pneumosclerosis. Often, it is a pulmonologist who diagnoses tuberculosis and an oncological process of the lungs.

How to get an appointment

For timely diagnosis and adequate therapy, it is extremely important to know where and to whom to turn for help. The therapist often sends an appointment with a pulmonologist when he has some doubts about the diagnosis and therapy. But at the same time, anyone who can make an appointment can consult with a specialist.

According to international criteria, there are a number of indications in which consultation of this specialist is important. Among them:

  • prolonged cough;
  • shortness of breath with a slight load;
  • soreness in the chest;
  • frequent SARS (more than 3 times a year).

In addition, consultations are sent during routine examinations. Every year, many undergo fluorography of the lungs. If the slightest changes are detected, the patient is immediately sent to the pulmonary cabinet. Especially often this happens with people working in hazardous industries.

Where does the specialist take

This doctor can be consulted in a clinic, in a private institution, in a clinic. The significant difference is only in the number of people and in pricing policy. Everyone chooses: live queue and reasonable price, or a more expensive appointment by appointment. The whole complex of examination, testing and therapy remains unchanged. This in no way depends on the place of admission. The main essence of private service privileges is the speed of diagnostic procedures.

You can also find a doctor using the Internet. Online consultation is really less reliable, but it is affordable and very convenient. It allows you to ask questions, describe the clinic of the disease, receive specialized answers, and make an appointment if necessary. That's why a great way, according to experts, is to go to the website of the profile doctor who is in your hometown. This will greatly simplify the task.

What does pulmonology mean, what does a pulmonologist do?

This industry directly studies and fights diseases of the bronchopulmonary apparatus. A specialist in this industry treats respiratory organs. It is important to regularly monitor your own health, periodically go to preventive examinations. Breathing is life.

The author of the article:
Izvozchikova Nina Vladislavovna

Specialty: infectious disease specialist, gastroenterologist, pulmonologist.

Total length of service: 35 years.

Education: 1975-1982, 1MI, San Gig, highest qualification, infectious diseases doctor.

Science degree: doctor of the highest category, candidate of medical sciences.


  1. Infectious diseases.
  2. Parasitic diseases.
  3. Emergency conditions.
  4. HIV
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