Elderberry belongs to the branchy shrubs of the family Adoksy. Since ancient times, elderberry has been used as a medicine in medicine, as an ornamental plant in gardens and as a culinary ingredient in dishes. It is used even as a means in the fight against rodents. Even in ancient Rome and ancient Greece, the plant was grown for the preparation of medicines. Elderberry is revered by some nations as a sacred tree, on the basis of its fruits, herbalists prepare healing tinctures and decoctions. Nowadays, these healing drugs are forgotten and unpopular by many, although black elderberry is used in pharmacology as a medicinal raw material. People call elderberry a buzovnik, sambuca, pishchik or elderberry color. There is a version of the origin of the botanical name of the plant. According to this version, the name is associated with a musical instrument called "sambuca", then translated from Latin means "red paint". Sambuca was made from wood plants.
Elderberry is a plant with a trunk up to 7 meters in length and a trunk up to 30 centimeters wide. Elderberry grows up to 60 years. Crohn's plants are rounded, leaves are large, up to 30 centimeters long. Flowers are yellow-white in color, with a pronounced fragrant smell, collected in bunches. Elderberry blooms from May to June, berries appear in August-September. Black elderberry - round berries 5-7 millimeters in diameter, collected in clusters.
Wild elderberry in nature grows among other shrubs at the edges of forests, in parks, along river banks and ponds. Most often, the plant is found in Belarus, Ukraine, the Caucasus, the Baltic states and southeast Russia. It is also found in North and South America, Algeria, Tunisia on the Azores.
Elderberry is one of the unpretentious shrubs that grows well both in the shade and in sunny places. It is important to distinguish elderberry black from elderberry red. Black elderberry is a medicinal plant, and red elderberry is one of the poisonous and dangerous plants for humans.
As medicinal raw materials, dried inflorescences and fruits of black elderberry are used. Less commonly used as medicinal raw materials are roots, bark and branches.
Chemical composition and calorie content
The chemical composition of elderberry includes many substances. The flowers of the plant contain flavonoids, glycosides, essential oil, carotene, organic acids (acetic, malic, ascorbic, valerianic, coffee, chlorogenic), tannins, sugars, mineral salts and resins. Elderberry fruits include ascorbic and acetic acids, carotene, fructose, glucose, amino acids, resins, pectins, tannins, vitamins C and P. Leaves and green fruits contain the poisonous glycoside sambunigrin. Dry leaves contain provitamin A1. The roots of the plant contain tannins and saponins.
It is important to note that the fresh berries and flowers of black elderberry contain the substance amygdalin, which can turn into hydrocyanic acid. But during drying, this substance evaporates, and the workpieces become usable.
The calorie content of black elderberry is 73 kcal. Nutritional value per 100 grams of fruit contains:
- proteins - 0.65 grams;
- fats - 0.5 grams;
- carbohydrates - 11.5 grams;
- ash - 0.65 grams;
- water - 79.8 grams.
In ancient times, rural residents actively used black elderberry in their diet. Young elderberry shoots were added to spring salads. Berry juice after fermentation was used to obtain a strong tincture. Plant flowers were added to white grape wine to give a nutmeg taste. Berry juice also served as a colorant for alcoholic beverages. Fresh flowers were added to the water with lemon juice and a refreshing drink was prepared.
Traditional medicine uses the fruits, flowers, leaves and bark of black elderberry. Fresh and dried elderberry berries have useful properties that are successfully used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease, hepatitis, as well as for their prevention. Fresh fruits of the plant are very useful for diseases of neuralgia. Dried elderberry fruits are used in the treatment of a rare and dangerous disease - malaria. According to medical research, it is believed that the healing properties of the plant are so huge that it is recommended to use it as an additional remedy for stomach cancer and skin cancer.
In the fight against stomach cancer, the patient must take jam from the berries, and in the fight against skin cancer, it is recommended to squeeze and prepare the drug on wine.
Due to the presence of choline, essential oil, rutin, valerianic, acetic and malic acids, black elderberry flowers are considered valuable healing agents. From flowers, plants make tinctures and decoctions for antibacterial and diaphoretic action. Therefore, it is recommended to use such infusions and decoctions during colds, sore throats or flu. For effective treatment, take one tablespoon of flowers and pour 200 grams of hot water and bring to a boil. Then cool and drink in a warm form for half a glass before eating. Such a decoction is useful in treating gout, rheumatism, and arthritis.
The leaves of black elderberry have a diaphoretic, antipyretic, astringent and soothing effect. Steamed leaves remove inflammation in case of diaper rash, hemorrhoids, furunculosis and burns. In folk medicine, the leaves of a young plant are used as an effective remedy for chronic constipation. The fact is that they produce a laxative effect, which is necessary for constipation. To prepare the recipe, you need to prepare honey and boil the leaves of the plant in it. Take the broth internally.
Elderberry bark also has a healing property in the fight against skin and kidney diseases. For treatment, prepare a decoction from the bark of the plant, which is added to the bath or used as a lotion in the treatment of gout, arthritis and rheumatism.
When improving metabolism, a decoction from a whole plant is used. Tinctures from dried fruits in a ratio of 1 to 10 stimulates bile secretion and diuresis, and also improves bowel function. Jam and jelly from elderberry are useful for the body. It is only recommended to cook them without sugar.
In folk cosmetology, lotions for face skin are made from flowers. They perfectly tone the skin and give it freshness and youthful appearance.
Harm and contraindications
Elderberry has some chemical features that can be harmful to people prone to certain diseases. First of all, red elderberry is very dangerous for human health. When touching the berries of red elderberry, it is imperative to wash your hands with soap, and in contact with the mucous membrane or cuts, you should immediately consult a doctor. It is not always possible to distinguish red elder from black elder. This is possible only during the ripening period of the berries. Therefore, it is necessary to know exactly what species the plant belongs to when collecting flowers, leaves and bark.
Fruits are not recommended to be taken during pregnancy, with ulcerative colitis and diabetes insipidus. Especially contraindicated are the fruits of the plant in Crohn's disease. The use of elderberry has a negative effect in chronic diseases of the stomach, as well as with individual intolerance to the body. It is also not recommended for children under 12 years of age.
Excessive intake of black elderberry can lead to nausea, vomiting and poor health.
Collection and storage
Flower picking starts from late May to mid-summer. The flowers are susceptible to moisture, so they must be properly collected to avoid damage. It is recommended that the collection of raw materials from 2 to 3 pm in clear weather. Blossom blossoming flowers with inflorescences. The collected flowers must be immediately sorted out and dried in air or in the oven at a temperature of about 35 ° C. You can not store dried flowers in plastic bags, as they get an unpleasant odor and change color. Flower storage - up to 2 years. It tastes sweetish with a faint aroma.
Fruits begin to collect in late summer. Unripe berries cannot be picked, they are poisonous. Berries are harvested in a similar way. They are dried at a temperature of 60 ° C, after which the stalks are separated. The berries taste tart with a pronounced smell. Shelf life of fruits - 6 months in a sealed container. If the berries are necessary for making jam, jam or confiture, then they do not need to be dried. Fresh berries are suitable for use within 2 days. Juice from berries is recommended to be prepared in a juicer or slow cooker, since the fruits remain whole in them, and the juice does not give bitterness. After preparing the juice, the berries are wiped and decanted, and useful jam is cooked from the resulting pulp.
Harvesting of roots begins in late autumn. After collection, they are dried and ground into powder. Store roots up to 5 years in sealed packaging. Plant bark is harvested from a two-year-old shrub in the spring until buds appear. Dried bark at temperatures up to 70 ° C, stored for up to 3 years.
Elderberries are stored in a dry and well-ventilated place. Periodically, you need to sort through the workpieces, spoiled raw materials must be discarded.
In medicine, elderberry is used as a general strengthening, analgesic, antipyretic, antiviral and anthelmintic drug. Elderberry preparations also help with the following problems:
- metabolic disease;
Decoctions and tinctures are drunk for viral diseases, and for inflammation of the oral mucosa, they are used for rinsing. With gynecological diseases, make baths based on decoctions. The fruits of the plant are successfully used in the treatment of mastopathy and adenoma of the prostate gland. Scientists have proven that fruits remove heavy metal salts and radionuclides from the body. Berries are added to slimming teas.
Leaves are used externally as lotions for diseases of the skin, joints, and tumors. Young buds and leaves are boiled in milk and used as applications for burns, inflammation, diaper rash and hemorrhoids.
Preparations from the plant bark are used as an emetic, laxative and diuretic for obesity, gout, tumors, pneumonia and toothache. The action of the drug from the cortex has a selective effect and does not affect blood pressure. Baths based on elderberry bark help with rashes, abscesses, rheumatism and burns. Effectively sprinkle with a powder based on the bark and roots of the plant poorly healing wounds and weeping ulcers.
Traditional medicine recipes
Black elderberry tincture for diabetes
- 1 tablespoon of dried berries;
- 200 grams of boiling water.
Pour the berries with boiling water and leave for 20 minutes. Take 50 ml after a meal.
Black elderberry tincture as a laxative
- 1 teaspoon of dried fruit;
- 200 grams of boiling water.
Pour the berries with boiling water and insist 15-20 minutes. Take for 2-3 times.
Black elderberry tincture in the treatment of colds
- 15 grams of dried fruit;
- 200 grams of boiling water.
Pour the berries with boiling water and insist 30 minutes. Take ¼ cup with honey 15 minutes before eating.
Black elderberry tincture in the treatment of constipation
- 10 grams of dried fruit;
- 200 grams of boiled water.
Pour the berries with chilled boiled water, leave for 2 hours and strain. Take 200 ml once a day.
Decoction of black elderberry leaves
- 1 tablespoon of leaves;
- 200 grams of boiled water.
Pour the leaves with water and boil for 5 minutes. Then insist until cool. Use a tablespoon three times a day for diabetes, gout, rheumatism and edema.
Elderberry juice in the treatment of tumors
- fresh berries;
Fresh black berries are placed in a three-liter jar with a thickness of 1.5-2 cm, sprinkled with sugar, then again a layer of berries 1.5-2 cm and so alternate until completely filled. Insist up to 30 days. Drink the resulting juice in a tablespoon after meals three times a day. 15 minutes before a meal, drink 150 ml of distilled water.
Alcohol-based elderberry juice in the treatment of mastopathy
- 250 ml of medical alcohol.
250 ml of juice is squeezed from the berries of the plant and 250 ml of alcohol is added to it. Drink the resulting solution with milk three times a day, starting with one drop. Reach forty drops, then reduce daily to one drop.
All kinds of jams, syrups, jam, jams, compotes and jams are made from the fruits of black elderberry. Syrup is made from elderberry in the Czech Republic. Ripe fruits of the plant are used in the food industry as natural dyes. Due to the low acidity, the fruits have no pronounced taste, moreover, they quickly deteriorate. To increase the taste and shelf life, citric or ascorbic acid, as well as lemon juice, are added to the products. This gives the dishes a taste of blackcurrant and cherry.